Lights Magazine TV

Ceguera por desatención

De acuerdo con Dan Simons psicólogo experimental, científico cognitivo, y profesor del Departamento de Psicología en el Instituto Beckman de Ciencia y Tecnología Avanzada en la Universidad de Illinois.

La ceguera por desatención es la incapacidad de notar algo inesperado cuando su atención está centrada en algo más. Así que a menudo podemos dejar de ver algo muy obvio justo frente a nosotros si no lo estamos buscando. Es el efecto secundario de algo que hacemos muy bien, concentrar nuestra atención y filtrar las distracciones irrelevantes.

Para poder percibir el mundo a nuestro alrededor necesitaríamos un cerebro del tamaño de un edificio. Pasan tantas cosas alrededor que nuestro cerebro no puede apreciarlas, entonces opta por “simular” la realidad, explica Susana Martínez neurocientífica del Neurological Institute de Phoenix, Arizona (EE UU). “Nuestro cerebro puede registrar solo detalles de la realidad, el resto lo inventa, rellena huecos por sí mismo”.

¿VIVIMOS EN UNA ILUSIÓN?

La mayoría de las cosas que nosotros consideramos “reales” son ilusorias. El mundo no es como lo vemos, como lo oímos o como lo recordamos. Lo que sucede es que nuestro cerebro reconstruye la realidad muy cercana a la que realmente es, pero nunca exacta.

Por lo siguiente no estoy diciendo que nosotros veamos lo que queremos, nuestras expectativas determina nuestra percepción. Por ejemplo, Ulric Neisser realizó en 1975 un experimento donde les mostró a diferentes personas un video de 45 segundos donde se veía a un conjunto de individuos pasando un balón y se les pidió a los participantes que contaran el número de veces en las que el balón aparecía. Al finalizar se les preguntaba ¿viste al gorila? A lo que la mayoría de las personas decían que no.  Y es que por 5 segundos en el fondo del video aparecía una persona con un disfraz de gorila que pasaba por detrás. La segunda vez cuando volvían a mostrarles el video lograban apreciarlo, pero solo cuando ya estaban avisados de su existencia. Esto se debía a que precisamente, ellos no esperaban ver un gorila, por lo que lo descartaban de su mente en el momento.

Esto es algo que los magos, estafadores y ladrones usan a la hora de realizar sus   prácticas. Ellos utilizan el foco de atención, así que mientras nosotros nos concentramos en el truco, desechamos el 95 % de lo que sucede a nuestro alrededor y ellos aprovechan esa brecha.

Las primeras áreas del cerebro solo visualizan los bordes de los objetos, basándose en ellos el cerebro inventa el interior.

¿Recuerdas que se dice que las mujeres pueden hacer varias cosas a la vez? Pues es falso, nadie puede. Si hacemos varias cosas al mismo tiempo, las haremos mal porque no existe la forma en que podamos repartir nuestra atención entre diversas situaciones.

Los expertos en neurociencia se encuentran en este momento trabajando de la mano de magos como Apollo Robbins, mago que se hizo famoso por robar carteras, placas de identificación y documentos del servicio secreto de Jimmy Carter, para averiguar los secretos de la mente. Uno de los descubrimientos más importantes es el de los movimientos microsacádicos, los cuales son movimientos muy pequeños de los ojos que hacemos de manera inconsciente, y es que si fijáramos la vista en un solo punto el mundo a nuestro alrededor desaparece, para poder ver destellos de lo que tenemos a nuestro alrededor es necesaria la introducción de este movimiento de ojos. Los movimientos curvos conllevan un menor nivel de atención por parte de los usuarios engañados en los experimentos y las emociones pueden evitar que las personas se percaten de los engaños.

Ahora si bien el no prestar atención puede ser peligroso al manejar,  ¿de qué otra forma lo puede ser?

En 1631 el rey de Inglaterra encargó a la Imprenta Real la creación de nuevas Biblias, se contrató a mucha gente para que el escrito estuviera hecho correctamente y miles de personas revisaron el libro al término de este. Aun así cometieron un error, uno bastante obvio en realidad. En el éxodo 20:14 del séptimo mandamiento olvidaron ponerle un NO al mandamiento por lo que el “NO COMETERÁS ADULTERIO” termino por decir “COMETERÁS ADULTERIO”.

Debido al error, a esta edición se le conoce como la Biblia Malvada. La imprenta fue multada con 300 libras esterlinas (mucho dinero en ese tiempo). Las Biblias fueron decomisadas de inmediato y quemadas, a la fecha solo se conoce de la existencia de 11 copias aun en existencia.

Como punto fuerte la ceguera por desatención es útil para la publicidad, la política, el mundo del crimen y estafas. En la vida cotidiana no solemos tener presente la limitación de la capacidad del cerebro de los demás, pensamos que todos se dan cuenta del error, cuando la mayoría de las veces no es así. Si somos conscientes de esa limitación, tendremos muchas más posibilidades de salir airosos.

Lights Magazine TV

Una revista para toda la familia. #IluminaTuMente

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