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Portugal 10 Junio Día Nacional

Al mencionar a Portugal nos viene a la mente la Edad Media, los celtas, su idioma, que es el sexto más hablado del mundo (¡hasta en África lo hablan!) y por supuesto el futbolista Cristiano Ronaldo.

La palabra Portugal viene de Portu y Cale, ¨Portucale¨, hoy Porto y Gaia. Su etimología es aún dudosa, y aunque se sabe que Portu es ¨puerto¨, algunos historiadores creen que Cale viene de kalles, que en griego significa ¨bonito¨.

Historia antigua
Se cree que hace 200 mil años ya habitaban ahí los primeros pobladores. Existen algunas rocas talladas que se hallaron en 1992, además de algunos dibujos de animales y humanos en la Gruta do Escorial que demuestran esta teoría.
Los celtas conquistaron el territorio de Portugal, después siguieron los romanos, quienes envenenaron mediante una trampa a su líder, Viriato. La herencia que dejaron los romanos fue el cultivo del trigo, la cebada, los olivos y viñedos, los latifundios y el idioma de origen latino. Fueron más adelante los visigodos, convertidos a cristianos, que dominaron el territorio en 469 dC. Sus problemas internos dieron paso a una invasión por parte de los árabes del norte de África, de los que se heredaron palabras y su repostería tradicional. Pero los cristianos fueron recuperando el norte, para después llegar al sur y casi 400 años después lo arrebataron a los musulmanes. Aun así quedaba gran poderío por parte de estos últimos. Esto fue así hasta la Reconquista, donde tuvieron que aceptar el Cristianismo y convertirse a sus costumbres para no morir.
En el año de 1217 Lisboa se convirtió en la capital de Portugal. Durante la Reconquista hubieron victorias cristianas, donde la Iglesia también acaparó terrenos; así como también los ricos aristócratas. Alfonso III (1248-1279) y después su hijo Dionisio el Labrado (12759-1325) tuvieron gran impacto en Portugal. Gracias a ellos existió el sistema judicial, mayor comercio interior, se cultivaron las artes, la música y la educación; también la Orden de los Templarios que disolvió en su momento el Papa Clemente V, convirtiéndola en la Orden de Cristo.
Para el año de 1497 Portugal tuvo grandes riquezas debido al éxito del viaje de expedición de Vasco de Gama cuando llegó al sur de la India. Los exploradores de Portugal llegaron a Filipinas, China y Japón lo que los afianzó en ese momento, pero estos viajes pasaron factura y para el año de 1580 habían perdido su momento de gloria.

En la actualidad
En la Primera Guerra Mundial, Portugal defendía su entrada al mencionar que así también sus colonias, pero se supo que en 1913 Inglaterra y Alemania se dividirían el ultramar portugués en partes iguales. Portugal deseaba entrar a la guerra por medio de alianzas, pero Inglaterra se lo impidió hasta que requirió su ayuda cuando unos barcos alemanes fueron a refugiarse a Tajo, un puerto neutral para ponerlos a su servicio, dando como resultado que Alemania le declaró la guerra.
António de Oliviera Salazar fue un dictador 30 años. Prometió sanear la economía nacional y formar un partido único que devolvería la grandeza del país. La constitución autoritaria que lideró tomó como referencia el fascismo italiano otorgando un papel principal a la Iglesia y fundando el Estado Novo. A la Iglesia le otorgó mucho poder ya que él tenía profundas convicciones católicas. En 1942 Salazar firmó el Pacto Ibérico dando su apoyo a la dictadura de Franco en España; también debido a su catolicismo formó un Concordato con el Vaticano en 1942 en el que le devolvía lo que el anterior gobierno portugués le había confiscado. Aunque durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial mantuvo una postura neutral, concedió uso de base militar a Inglaterra y a Estados Unidos. Murió en 1970 por un ataque de apoplejía en Lisboa.
El 25 de abril de 1974 se inició la Guerra de los Claveles en la que las últimas colonias portuguesas obtuvieron su independencia convirtiendo a la vez a Portugal en un estado de derecho liberal. En 1976 se promulgó su Constitución y se celebraron elecciones para la Asamblea. En la actualidad cada 25 de abril se celebra el Día de la Libertad.

Desde abril de 2016, el poder ejecutivo está constituido por el Presidente de la República, Don Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, elegido por sufragio universal por un periodo de 5 años y por el Gobierno encabezado por el Primer Ministro, Antonio Costa.
En cuanto a su política exterior, tiene tres ejes; la Unión Europea, el eje transatlántico, Estados Unidos y Brasil y el Eje africano, que son los países africanos con lengua oficial portuguesa.

Este año después de poco más de una década de grave crisis, Portugal parece levantarse y estar listo para afrontar con trabajo y optimismo el futuro de su país y un ferviente deseo de ser grandes otra vez. Su historia y su futuro lo hacen un lugar muy atractivo para visitar.

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