Lights Magazine TV

Rosa Parks

Una de las mujeres más trascendente en la historia de los Estados Unidos, y a quien se recuerda en estas fechas es sin duda, Rosa Parks.

Rosa Parks seated toward the front of the bus, Montgomery, Alabama, 1956. (Photo by Underwood Archives/Getty Images)

Transcurría el 1 de diciembre de 1955 cuando una mujer afroamericana de 42 años, costurera, secretaria y ayudante de la Asociación Nacional para el Avance del Pueblo de Color, se subió a un autobús en Montgomery Alabama, Estados Unidos. Ella era Rosa Parks.

 

En los años cincuenta la comunidad negra era humillada, especialmente al sur del país, con leyes heredadas de la esclavitud del siglo XIX, diseñadas para hacerlos sentir inferiores.

 

Los espacios públicos estaban delimitados para negros y para blancos. En el caso de los autobuses el frente era para la gente blanca y la mitad de atrás para la gente de color. Los pasajeros negros debían subir, pagar al conductor, salir y después volver a subir para entrar por la puerta trasera.

 

Pero ese día cuando el autobús estuvo lleno, el conductor le pidió a Rosa Parks y a otros tres hombres afroamericanos, que estaban sentados justo detrás del área reservada para blancos que le cedieran el asiento a un joven blanco. Pues la ley indicaba que en caso de necesitarlo, los negros debían de ceder sus asientos. Los tres hombres obedecieron, pero ella no. Rosa Parks era una mujer estudiada y decidida.  Ante la insistencia del conductor y la negación de ella, él amenazó con llamar a la policía, pero Rosa sólo respondió con un: “Puedes hacerlo”. Sabía que lo que hacía tendría sus consecuencias, pero lo que no imaginó fue su magnitud. Pues su simple acto de rebeldía fue el detonante para un hecho mayor, el Movimiento Americano Contra las Leyes de Discriminación.

 

Rosa Parks fue arrestada, acusada de perturbar la paz, estuvo en un calabozo y multada con 14 dólares. Cuando se le preguntó por qué lo había hecho, ella dijo que ese día estaba cansada. Pero no exactamente cansada físicamente, si no “cansada” de ceder a las injusticias de la gente blanca. No era la primera vez que una mujer había sido arrestada por la misma razón, pues dos años atrás, en 1953 la profesora universitaria, Jo Ann Robinson había realizado el mismo acto.

 

Lo ocurrido con Rosa llamó la atención de un joven pastor bautista, Martin Luther King quien  junto con E. D. Nixon, amigo y compañero de Parks en la  Asociación Nacional para el Avance del Pueblo de Color, persuadieron a la comunidad afroamericana para realizar una protesta pacífica, que duraría 382 días.

 

Entre 17 mil y 30 mil miembros de la comunidad emprendieron la campaña la mañana del lunes 5 de diciembre. Desde ese momento, las paradas de camiones quedaron vacías, pues no tomarían el autobús hasta que sus peticiones fueran escuchadas. Quienes protestaban demandaban tres cosas: eliminar la ley que exigía que los negros dieran sus asientos a los blancos en los autobuses, que se contrataran conductores afroamericanos y que los conductores trataran a las personas por igual. Tanto los dueños de las empresas de transporte como los funcionaros de la ciudad se opusieron.

 

Desgraciadamente para las compañías de autobuses y comerciantes cercanos a las paradas, sus ganancias provenían de la gente afroamericana. Como consecuencia los negocios comenzaron a decaer. Esto provocó una oleada de violencia contra los participantes del boicot.

 

El 13 de noviembre de 1956 la Suprema Corte declaró inconstitucionales las leyes de segregación, pues la constitución afirma “todos los individuos de la nación son iguales”. Para celebrar, Martin Luther King, Nixon y Rosa Parks subieron a un autobús y Parks se sentó en el primer asiento.

 

Rosa Parks después de este acto de valentía tuvo distinciones. Se le recuerda con una estatua en Memphis con una estatua en el Museo de los Derechos Civiles. Falleció en el año de 2005 a la edad de 92 años.

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