Lights Magazine TV

Efecto Umbral

No hay persona en el mundo que en algún momento al entrar a la cocina se pregunte ¿a qué entré? o interrumpes a un amigo pues debes decirle algo muy importante y en el momento de hacer la preguntas respondes con un ¿qué te iba a decir? Algunos culpan a la edad o les preocupa que sean indicios de Alzheimer, pero no se angustien, esto se conoce como el “Efecto Umbral” y demuestra que nuestro cerebro funciona como debe.

La memoria mantiene la información del momento a la mano, lista para ser utilizada, pero al cambiar el ambiente físico se reinicia a sí misma para prepararse a nueva información.

Cómo Funciona?

La forma en la que nuestra atención cambia de acuerdo a la acción que realizamos es lo que les permite a los seres humanos realizar comportamientos complejos. El cerebro crea modelos llamados “modelo de evento”, basados en el ambiente pero una vez este cambia el antiguo modelo se olvida.

El Efecto Umbral demuestra una característica importante sobre el modo en que nuestro cerebro procesa las cosas. Nuestro cerebro es como una computadora de última generación, que si bien son rápidas y productivas, sólo pueden concentrarse en una cosa a la vez. Por lo que nuestro cerebro desecha ciertas tareas para encargarse de otras.

Las asociaciones físicas son fundamentales para la memoria, por eso cuando estamos rodeados de objetos infantiles, nos inundan recuerdos sobre esa etapa de nuestras vidas. Lo mismo pasa cuando llegamos a la casa de los abuelos. Entonces cuando cambiamos de ambiente físico, el mental también cambia, es decir, nuestro foco de atención fluctúa en el momento en que cruzamos una puerta, literalmente. Pues el cerebro interpreta a los umbrales como un punto divisorio, una vez pasado el acceso, desecha los pensamientos y recuerdos anteriores para dar espacio a los nuevos.

Esto quedó demostrado gracias a un experimento en la Universidad de Notre Dame en Indiana, Estados Unidos: la prueba consistía en un juego virtual donde un participante tenía que llevar una caja, de un edificio a otro, atravesando diferentes habitaciones hasta llegar al final del edificio, salir a la calle, entrar al siguiente edificio y subir para colocar la caja en la habitación especificada. Cada vez que los participantes se movían de un cuarto a otro, un nuevo objeto aparecía frente a ellos, si el objeto era igual al que transportaban, los participantes debían indicar “sí” con uno de los botones. Dichos objetos aparecían en cualquier parte, tanto dentro de la habitación en la que estaban o en la siguiente. De esta forma se comprobó que cuando los objetos aparecían fuera del cuarto donde habían permanecido por un instante, era más probable que ellos olvidaran lo que transportaban. Debido a los resultados se decidió trasladar el experimento a la vida real y el resultado fue prácticamente el mismo, con lo que quedó demostrado el Efecto Umbral.

Lights Magazine TV

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