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Seppuku, El Suicidio En Japón

Japón ocupa uno de los primeros lugares en suicidio en el mundo, y si bien no se compara a Groenlandia, Rusia o Corea del Sur quienes están por encima de él, sus cifras son alarmantes, pues hombres de 15 a 44 años son los más dados a acabar con su vida.

Se estima que entre 1972 y 2013 fueron 18,048 los menores de 18 años que se han quitado la vida.

Aunque se oye extraño, el suicidio es parte de la cultura de Japón, pues en la era feudal, si un samurái no podía cumplir una misión, por vergüenza y honor, preferían suicidarse. Esto se vio reflejado también en la Segunda Guerra, cuando los kamikaze se lanzaban sobre los aviones enemigos sabiendo que morirían en el impacto o enfrentándose a infanterías superiores con conocimiento de que iban a perder. Y por si fuera poco, su religión, el Shintoismo, indica que “debemos de hacer las cosas que deben hacerse y seguir el camino que fue marcado para nosotros”, por lo que, el no cumplir con las expectativas que se esperan de ellos es un hecho fatal.

¿POR QUÉ SE SUICIDAN?

Aunque es parte de su cultura, no significa que sea algo normal de todos los días. Japón es uno de los países más exigentes, por así decirlo, pues las cosas son llevadas al extremo en muchos aspectos. Desde trabajar más de 100 horas extras a la semana para recibir bonos y  demostrar que te estas esforzando (porque está mal visto que te vayas temprano del trabajo), hasta sacar las mejores calificaciones para entrar a la mejor universidad y conseguir el mejor empleo. Agreguen la presión social y la misma sociedad patriarcal, donde el hombre es el responsable de proveer a la familia, y el que no pueda hacerlo es motivo de deshonra y vergüenza.

Los motivos por los que se suicida la gente en Japón son los mismos por los que lo hacen en otros países. El 50% de los suicidios son de enfermos terminales, que al no querer ser una carga para sus familias deciden acabar con su vida, seguido de esto están los problemas económicos, amorosos, familiares, laborales y finalmente educativos, con sólo 1.1 % y aunque no se escucha como una gran cifra, en 2014 se determinó que el suicidio es una de las causas de muerte más comunes entre jóvenes de 10 a 19 años, y de acuerdo con datos del gobierno, el 1 de septiembre es el día más mortal del año pues no sólo es el inicio del ciclo escolar, sino el día donde la taza de suicidios aumenta.

 

Una biblioteca de Kamakura escribió en twitter:

“El segundo semestre está a punto de empezar. Si estás pensando en suicidarte porque odias tanto a la escuela, ¿por qué no vienes a vernos? Tenemos historietas y novelas ligeras”.

Nadie te dirá nada si pasas todo el día aquí. Piensa en nosotros como un refugio si estás pensando en elegir la muerte antes que regresar a la escuela en septiembre”.

Tan simple como se oye resultó ser controversial pues alienta a los chicos a no ir a la escuela, siendo que la biblioteca es parte de la Comisión de Educación de la Ciudad, pero sorpresivamente el mensaje llegó a los corazones de muchos pues fue retuiteado 60 mil veces.

Las buenas notas no son lo único que llevó a estos niños a querer acabar con su vida, pues el acoso también es motivo suficiente. Incluso en los salones de clases existe una jerarquía, y dependiendo de que sepas interpretarla, es si pasas de víctima a victimario. En una entrevista organizada por el gobierno 90% de los estudiantes entrevistados dijeron que de bulleado pasaron a convertirse en el bulleador.

 

ESTRÉS LABORAL

Algunas empresas no sólo califican de favorable el hacer horas extras, a veces las exigen. Si bien este es un tema que el gobierno y en especial el Departamento de Trabajo de Tokio y la Oficina de Inspección de Trabajo ya han implementado medidas, como hacer inspecciones sorpresa y multar a las compañías por explotar a sus empleados e incluso ha habido empresas acusadas de causar el suicidio de sus trabajadores, aún continúan sucediendo. Pues los empleados están en su mayoría dispuestos a realizar las horas extras siempre y cuando obtengan un beneficios, no solo implica dinero, también aumentos de puesto y algunos otros privilegios como lograr que sus hijos asistan a escuelas de renombre, pero la consecuencia a esto es obvia pues no sólo se suicidan, los casos de ataques cardiacos y muerte por problemas digestivos, fatiga o estrés han terminado con la vida de muchos y lo peor es que las empresas se hacen las desentendidas o las familias de los mismos empleados esconden la razón de su muerte por vergüenza.

 

 

EL SUICIDIO COMO UN PROBLEMA SOCIAL

En 1996 la cifra de suicidios al año llego a las 30 mil personas, a partir de entonces se creó la Ley Básica de Prevención del Suicidio y se reconoció a éste como un problema social y no individual como se había estado manejando hasta entonces. Para 1997 comenzó a comercializarse la Guía Políticas de Prevención del Suicidio, se crearon organizaciones y planes públicos de conservación mental, gestión de ayuda de endeudamiento y apoyos financieros para familiares de suicidas, gracias a esto el número fue descendiendo y para 2015 la tasa de suicidios pasó a ser de 24,025, de estos, sólo 300 eran casos de menor de edad, si bien el número no ha descendido lo suficiente, el proceso es constante y se espera que siga bajando, aunque aún falta bastante para que este número llegue a menos de 10 mil se tienen grandes expectativas de lograrlo.

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