Lights Magazine TV

Erupción de la Tierra

Por: Lights Magazine

¿Por qué tanta actividad volcánica?

Las fisuras volcánicas que hemos visto recientemente en Hawaii y el estado de emergencia en el que se encuentra, así como las labores que han realizado las autoridades para evitar que la lava afecte a la población, hace que pensemos si en verdad detener estos desastres será siempre posible.

¿Qué es una fisura volcánica?
Es una hendidura más o menos lineal en la corteza terrestre por la cual se expulsa lava, por lo general no tiene actividad explosiva.
¿Qué tan común es ver fisuras volcánicas en el mundo?
Esto se da en Islandia y en el norte de África; en Hawaii se producen ¨cortinas de fuego¨ que son como fuentes de lava que erupcionan a lo largo de una porción de una fisura.

¿Ha ocurrido antes?
La primer gran fisura que se tiene registro fue en Islandia del sistema de Eldgjá ¨fisura del fuego¨ entre 934 y 940.

Volcán Laki
El Volcán Laki en el sur de Islandia, cerca del Eldgjá, hizo que sus habitantes vivieran la peor catástrofe en la historia reciente de su país.
Fue el 8 de junio de 1783 cuando en el sistema volcánico de Grimsvötn se registró una de las mayores erupciones volcánicas de la historia y sus efectos no cesaron hasta un año después. Como resultado se generó una densa capa sobre la isla llena de gases nocivos para el ser humano, los animales y la vegetación, acabando con casi una cuarta parte de la población.
Esto afectó a la isla ya que al ser un país joven, habitaban alrededor de 50 mil personas, de las que murieron 10 mil. La erupción arrasó prácticamente con todo el ganado, lo que provocó una crisis de hambruna y muerte en los siguientes años. Los islandeses no sabían la maginutud de alcance que que provocó esta erupción volcánica en Europa; sólo veían a su país cubierto de una neblina que contenía azufre, salitre, arena y ceniza. La tiniebla cubrió Dinamarca, Berlín, París y las orillas de Gran Bretaña. Incluso se atestiguó en periódicos de aquella época que no se había conocido un calor tan sofocante. Debido a las consecuencias del calor y las lluvias, hubo cuantiosas muertes en toda Europa, pues en la atmósfera se mezclaba el dióxido de sulfuro con vapor de agua que en los pulmones provocó asfixia.
El aspecto del sol cambió de color, y al no saber los demás países europeos el por qué de ese calor y color del sol, hubo confusión y miedo. Según cita ¨La Gaceta de Madrid¨, «el cambio del color era suficiente para que el pueblo se asustase; y en efecto la consternación fue general en las gentes poco instruidas […] vive el pueblo en el mayor conflicto, recelando grandes males».
Los cambios que hubieron en el continente europeo fueron inundaciones en el Río Rhin, terremotos en Oporto, Nápoles, Polonia y Provenza en Francia; así como la erupción del monte Vesubio. El clima se trastornó con veranos más calientes que el promedio y fríos más intensos, evitando que la siembra fuera buena. Se calcula que hubieron casi 6 millones de muertes en Europa como consecuencia de esta erupción.
El 2 de diciembre de 1784, el único científico que creyó que el cambio de clima en Europa procedía por la densa capa de azufre que provenía del volcán Laki en Islandia, fue Benjamin Franklin.

Erupción del Kilauea en Hawaii, 2018
Fue a finales de abril pasado que inició el proceso de erupción cuando el cráter Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō comenzó a llenarse de lava. En mayo empezaron los sismos y las calles a fracturarse, hay un total de 1,700 personas evacuadas y al menos unas 20 familias perdieron sus casas y 700 edificios fueron desalojados.
El pasado viernes 11 de mayo, los científicos advirtieron de una erupción a gran escala ya que el volcán llevaba varios días en actividad, ¨los niveles de lava dentro del cráter están disminuyendo, lo que podría ser el preludio de una gran erupción”, dijo la geofísica Ingrid Johanson del Servicio Geológico de Estados Unidos. De nuevo el domingo 20 de mayo ocurrió una erupción en la que se crearon una docena de fisuras. La lava del volcán Kilauea llegó al océano cerca de Pahoa, Hawaii formando una nube tóxica producida por la reacción química cuando la lava toca agua de mar, formada por ácido clorhídrico y finas partículas de vidrio. A raíz de esto, se ha pedido a los habitantes que estén listos para marcharse.

Lights Magazine TV

Una revista para toda la familia. #IluminaTuMente

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