Lights Magazine TV

Estrés infantil

Por: Lic. María de la Luz Briones Aguilar

Psicóloga  Educativa y Psicoterapeuta.

Aunque pareciera que la vida de los niños no tiene sobresaltos y que por su corta edad no se enfrentan a situaciones externas que pudieran causarles algún estrés, como sucede con los adultos, por el contrario, los menores se enfrentan a diario a condiciones que les afectan en su desempeño, tanto en el hogar como en la escuela.

Si creía que el estrés solamente se presentaba en los adultos, no es así. Actualmente se han  incrementado los casos de estrés en la infancia, que inicia desde la edad preescolar.

Afecta los principales aspectos del desarrollo del niño, tanto en el ámbito escolar, social y familiar, como en la salud física. Cada pequeño muestra una reacción diferente al estrés, ya que no pueden diferenciar los síntomas como un adulto.

Algunos de los detonantes del estrés en los niños: el fallecimiento o divorcio de alguno de los padres, el cambio de casa o escuela, un nuevo hermanito, peleas entre los padres, orinarse en el salón, ser molestado por niños más grandes, visitas al médico, exámenes reprobados, entre otros.

Por eso es importante considerar tanto papás como maestros, el mostrarse sensibles ante las necesidades adaptativas de los menores, tomando en cuenta que las diferentes respuestas varían de acuerdo al entorno familiar y escolar.

Los primeros síntomas que debemos detectar en los niños: tristeza, enojo constante, dolor de cabeza y de estómago, problemas para relajarse y dormir, hipo o hiperactividad, comerse las uñas, regresiones, excesiva preocupación.

¿Cómo enseñar a los niños a reconocer los síntomas del estrés?

Es muy importante que los niños aprendan a detectar algún cambio en relación a los latidos de su corazón, respiración agitada, sudoración en las manos, dolor de cabeza, sentirse nerviosos o músculos tensos.

¿Cómo ayudar a los niños y niñas con estrés?

Primero hacerles sentir que son escuchados y comprendidos en su sentir, ayudarlos a relajarse mostrándose afectuoso o abrazándolos e involucrándolos en alguna actividad física. Enséñelo a meditar y cuide que su alimentación sea balanceada.

¿Cómo prevenir el estrés en nuestros hijos?

Las emociones son una parte fundamental del estrés, por lo cual es importante que los padres ayuden a sus hijos a canalizarlas adecuadamente. De la misma manera, demuéstrele afecto, ya que les brinda seguridad. También es primordial  no saturarlo de actividades extraescolares.

El Dr. James H. Humphrey  pionero en la educación sobre el estrés, nos dice que éste ha alcanzado una proporción pandémica, especialmente en los niños, provocada por la forma en que están siendo educados y tratados. Visto así, es una importante razón por la cual deben cambiar las formas y maneras en que son tratados por sus padres y por los mismos maestros.

Uno de los puntos primordiales es modificar sus hábitos en casa, sobre todo en el tiempo que pasan frente al televisor o aparato de video. De acuerdo a un estudio se estima que en cada hogar hay por lo menos tres aparatos de televisión y el menor actual dedica varias horas en verla y por ello está expuesto a infinidad de violencia por medio de asesinatos, violaciones y robos a mano armada. La violencia en la TV puede ser determinante en la conducta y el comportamiento de los menores.

Por todo lo anterior es importante que padres de familia y maestros estén al pendiente de la conducta de los menores. Se recomienda acudir a un profesional en caso de que los síntomas y signos sean frecuentes y que observe un cambio considerable en el estado anímico y en su desempeño escolar, a fin de evitar al niño, algún problema nervioso mayor.

Lights Magazine TV

Una revista para toda la familia. #IluminaTuMente

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